Basic principles
Japanese English
Awase Harmonic connection between uke and nage. It also describes the right “timing” in the movement between uke and nage. Which makes a fluent and natural movement
Chi earth
Irimi Direct entrance into the attacking movement
Ki Energy, vital force; (chines.: chi)
Kokyu Power of breath
Ma-ai (physical and mental) distance between uke and nage
Musubi Connection with the center of the partner, unity
Omote Front side
Shisei The right inner and outer attitude
Soto, Outside, beyond
Ten sky
Tenchi Connection between sky and earth, gives the 2-dimensional movement above the ground the 3. dimension
Tenkan Indirect principle, to let the attack energy/movement pass due to stepping aside or turning
Uchi Inside, within, home, to be home
Ura backside
Zanshin impartial, free, attentive spirit, to keep the attention at the end of the technique
Practice Forms
Japanese English
Aiki taiso Preparation exercises in aikido
Atemi waza Strike techniques. In aikido the atemi is used to disturb the focus, movement and the balance of the attacker and not to destroy the attacker, which happens in other martial arts
Bokken waza Nage is using/practicing with the sword
Buki waza Weapon practice
Deai The first contact at a technique
Go no keiko Solid practices (hard training), the uke tries to resist against the technique
Hanmi handachi waza Techniques where the Nage/tori kneels and uke stands
Henka waza Changing the technique in the movement
Jiyû waza Free choice of the technique
Jô dori Nage takes the jo/stick from the uke
Jô waza Nage keeps the jo/stick
Jû no keiko Relaxed/smooth practice
Jiyû waza Free practice
Kaeshi waza Counter technique
Kata Predefined motion sequence/form (in aikido mostly for weapon practice)
Katame waza Grapping techniques
Keiko Exercise, practice, training
Ki no keiko Fluent, harmonic practice
Ki no nagare To let the ki flow, the attacking energy disappears in the combined movement
Kihon waza Practice of a technique in its ideal form without any input from the uke – it is to learn the technique
Kokyu ho Power of breath exercise
Kumi jo Exercise with the partner – both working with the jo
Kumi tachi Exercise with the partner – both working with the bokken
Nage waza Throwing techniques
Randori Free techniques with more than one uke
Ryû no keiko Soft working without resistance – to learn the form
Suburi Basic weapon forms without a partner
Suwari waza Techniques on the knees
Tachi dori Nage takes the sword from the uke
Tachi waza Techniques in standing
Tai jutsu Weaponless techniques
Taisô Warming up training
Tanto dori Nage takes the tanto/knife from the uke
Tanto waza Nage keeps the tanto
Waza Technique, exercise
Positions and Movements
Japanese English
Ai hanmi The partners having the same position when they are meeting each other
Chûdan Body center
Gedan Region at the legs
Gyaku hanmi The partners are standing mirror inverted face to face
Hanmi Basic position in aikido, natural position with slightly turned hip
Henka Turn of 180° on the spot without making a step
Hidari kamae Left posture
Irimi Straight step forward
Irimi-tenkan Straight step forward with a 180° turn around the front leg
Kamae Position/poster
Ken no kamae Basic poster with the sword (Legs are placed in migi kamae)
Mai ukemi Forward roll
Migi hanmi Natural position with slightly turned hip (right leg in front)
Migi kamae Right posture
Seiza Formal sitting on the knees
Shikko Walking on the knees
Shizentai Natural symmetric posture
Tai sabaki Steps, movement of the body
Tenkan 180° turn around the front foot
Ukemi Rolling exercise
Ushiro ukemi Backwards roll
Yoko ukemi Falling to the side
Japanese English
Chudan tsuki Straight fist punch against the tummy or solar plexus
Dori To hold
Eri dori Grab at the collar (mostly from behind)
Gedan tsuki Straight fist punch at the genital area
Geri Kick
Hiji dori Uke grabs Nage at the elbow
Jodan tsuki Straight fist paunch into the face
Kata dori Uke grabs Nage at the shoulder
Katate dori ai hanmi One hand of the Uke grabs nage’s hand slightly over the wrist (right hand grabs right hand or left hand grabs left hand)
Katate dori gyaku hanmi Uke’s hand grabs Nage’s hand shortly over the wrist (left hand grabs right hand or right hand grabs left hand)
Katate ryote dori Uke grabs Nage’s one of nage’s arms shortly over the wrist with both hands
Kiri / giri Cutting, split
Kubi shime To strangle someone
Mae In front
Men uchi Straight punch with the side of the hand against the face
Mune dori To grab the lapel at the chest
Mune tsuki Punch against the chest
Ryo Both
Ryote dori Uke grabs both hands from nage slightly over the wrist
Shomen uchi Punch/cut with the side of the hand against the parting/cortex
Sode dori Uke grabs nage at the sleeve
Tsuki Punch
Uchi Stroke
Ushiro Behind
Yoko From the side
Yokomen uchi Stroke on the side of the head or neck
Pining technique
Japanese English
Ikkyo (ude osae) First pining technique
Nikyo (kote mawashi) Second pining technique
Sankyo (kote hineri) Third pining technique
Yonkyo (tekubi osae) Fourth pining technique
Gokyo (ude nobashi) Fifth pining technique
Rokyo (ude/hiji kime osae) Sixth pining technique (with blocked elbow/arm)
Kata gatame Pining technique with holding the shoulder
Hiji gatame Pining technique with holding the elbow
Throwing techniques
Japanese English
Aiki otoshi Throw with “pulling” away the legs
Ashi barai Foot-/leg wiper
Hiji gaeshi Cut in the elbow
Hiji otoshi To bring the elbow in the point where the balance breaks
Irimi nage Throw with a direct entrance
Juji nage/garami Throw over crossed arms
Kaiten nage (uchi / soto) Turn throw, where the arm of the uke is behind and over it’s back (inner/outer entrance)
Kaji mawashi “turn the steering wheel”
Karami nage Throw with hooking in of the arm
Kata otoshi To bring the shoulder in the point where the balance breaks
Kime modoshi Blocking and giving back
Kiri otoshi Throw with the side of the hand-cut (elbow, shoulder, neck)
Kokyu nage Breath-power-throw. Different techniques on a higher level (mostly without at grab of the nage)
Koshi nage Hip throw
Kote barai Forearm wiper
Kote gaeshi Throw over the wrist, also as a pin in the end
Maki arashi maku-to warp, arashi-storm
Maki irimi nage Irimi nage with warping uke’s arm (around the neck)
O-guruma “big wheel”
O-hineri “large tacking”
Shiho nage “four direction throw”, also used as a pinning technique
Sumi otoshi to let it fall into the corner
Suso barai Hem wiper
Tani otoshi “To let it fall” “into the valley”
Tenchi nage “sky earth throw”
Tenzashi “to stab into the sky”
Tomoe nage Throw with letting the nage fall backwards
Tsubasa gaeshi Like flipping wings
Yoko domoe lateral tomoe nage
Sword techniques
Japanese English
Batto jutsu Art of pulling the sword (older form of Iaido)
Chiburi Movement to get rid of the blood on the sword
Iaido The art of pulling the sword
Jodan no kamae Poster where the sword is raised over the head
Jun te Normal posture, the thumb points away from the body
Kesa giri Diagonal cut (from shoulder to hip)
Kiriage Cut from beneath to up
Kirioroshi Cut from above to down
Kumi tachi Sword practice together
Noto To insert the sword into the scabbard
Nukitsuke To pull the sword
Shiho giri To cut in four directions
Stick techniques
Japanese English
Bojutsu Stick techniques
Kumi jo Practicing together with the jo